GDP, a measure of economic welfare, may be supplemented with other measures of economic welfare and environmental sustainability. This article discusses alternative measures which have been proposed in the literature concerning pollution, which can be used to augment GDP as a measure of welfare to produce a better index.
Topics in Middle Eastern and North African Economies
Middle East Economic Association and Loyola University Chicago
Hilmi, Nathalie; Safa, Alain; Peridy, Nicolas; and Zemouri, Messaoud, "Taking into Account Sustainable Development for MENA Countries: The Calculation of a Modified HDI Index". Topics in Middle Eastern and North African Economies, electronic journal, 17, Middle East Economic Association and Loyola University Chicago, 2015, http://www.luc.edu/orgs/meea/
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