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Revista Miriada Hispanica






This study investigates the English and Spanish lower-order writing development of 185 bilingual students in two-way immersion (TWI) programs and explores the extent to which home language exposure may explain different writing trajectories in each language. Students were administered English and Spanish basic writing skills assessments once per year over four years, from second through fifth grade. Multi-level modeling revealed that students demonstrated significant growth in lower-order writing ability in both languages, but the rates of acceleration slowed over time. Moreover, increased use of a given language at home was significantly associated with higher writing ability in that language in 5th grade. However in English, students with higher levels of Spanish exposure at home exhibited a faster growth rate, thus approaching the performance of those with more English exposure at home.


© Howard, E., & Neugebauer, S.R. 2015. This article is posted here by permission of University of Virginia and Universitat de València for personal use, not for redistribution. The article was published in Revista Miriada Hispanica, Vol. 10, 2015,

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

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