Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


School of Education


This study analyzes three legislations that affected education for language

minority students. The research starts with a historical overview of the foundation of the

United States and the education of the non-English speaking population. It examines the

conditions that led to the first Bilingual Education Act of 1968, the changes that appeared

in the Bilingual Education Act of 1974, and the development of Title III of the No Child

Left Behind Act of 2001. The country's response to English language learners and their

individual learning needs is looked at throughout each listed time period, as well as the

implications for educational leaders.

Each legislation study answers three questions:

1. What are the economic, political, social, and educational conditions of each

time period that influenced the legislation?

2. Who are the leaders that advocated for English language learners?

3. What are their arguments and as a result, what programs were developed?

The primary sources used include public laws, U.S. Senate and House of

Representatives hearings, congressional documents, newspaper articles, presidents'

speeches, government reports, and journals. These sources help to understand and

describe the trends of each time period and the implications for educational leaders and

language minority students.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.