Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


School of Education


This dissertation examines the impact of religion on female access to education in Thailand from 1889 to 1931 -- the early Modernization Period in Thailand -- a critical time of advancement and modernization in the nation. Although Thailand had traditionally been a Buddhist nation-state, Protestant missionaries during this era arrived to the country to convert Thais to Christianity. The Protestant belief in literacy so that everyone could read the Bible contributed in opening educational opportunities for Thai girls that were not previously available to them.

Chapters One through Three of this dissertation investigate the degree to which Buddhist and Christian (Protestant) influences affected Thai educational reforms for girls in primary and secondary education during the early Modernization Period, using feminist theoretical framework to understand their social, political, economic, and religious impact. Examination of historical document analysis and empirical data are employed to comparatively analyze the effect of two religions' values on female education access. Chapters Four, Five, and Six of the dissertation explore the historical and contextual discourse of Buddhism and women in Thailand, history of education for Thai females during the early Modernization Period, and the overview of Protestant missions in the country and their effects in establishing mass education. Chapter Seven examines female enrollment rates in primary and secondary public, local, and religious schools in Thailand during 1889-1931. The study concludes in Chapter Eight with a discussion of the degree to which Buddhist and Protestant groups influenced educational access for females in Thailand during the early Modernization Period.


By the author's request, access to the full text of this document is only available to current students, faculty, and staff of Loyola University Chicago.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.