Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




Recent research has begun to examine insecure high self-esteem, which is characterized by low implicit (unconscious) and high explicit (conscious) self-esteem. However, little work has investigated its possible origins. Examining its origins is important because empirical findings have linked insecure high self-esteem to defensiveness, narcissism, in-group bias (Bosson et al., 2003; Jordan et al., 2003; Trumpeter et al., 2008), and anxiety (Bos, Huijding, Muris, Vogel, and Biesheuvel 2010). The current research investigated the possible origin of insecure high self-esteem in inconsistent parenting based on relevant research and theories that link parenting to the development of implicit and explicit self-esteem. Contrary to what was hypothesized, this link was not found in the combined parents inconsistent parenting measure or mom measures of inconsistent parenting. However, a significant relation was found between dad inconsistent parenting the development of insecure high self-esteem.

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