Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Nature Reviews Urology





Publisher Name

Nature Research


Phages are vital members of the microbiota, having critical roles in shaping bacterial metabolism and community structure. Although phages have been discovered in the urinary tract, such as phages that infect Escherichia coli, sampling them is challenging owing to low biomass, possible contamination when using non-invasive methods and the invasiveness of methods that reduce the potential for contamination. Phages could influence bladder health, but an understanding of the association between phage communities, bacterial populations and bladder health is in its infancy. However, evidence suggests that phages can defend the host against pathogenic bacteria and, therefore, modulation of the microbiome using phages has therapeutic potential for lower urinary tract symptoms. Furthermore, as natural predators of bacteria, phages have garnered renewed interest for their use as antimicrobial agents, for instance, in the treatment of urinary tract infections.


Author Posting. © Springer Nature 2019. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Nature Research for personal use, not for redistribution. The article was published in Nature Reviews Urology, 2019,

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.