Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

BMC Bioinformatics





Retrotransposons are mobile DNA elements that spread through genomes via the action of element-encoded reverse transcriptases. They are ubiquitous constituents of most eukaryotic genomes, especially those of higher plants. The pericentromeric regions of soybean (Glycine max) chromosomes contain >3,200 intact copies of the Gmr9/GmOgre retrotransposon. Between the 3' end of the coding region and the long terminal repeat, this retrotransposon family contains a polymorphic minisatellite region composed of five distinct, interleaved minisatellite families. To better understand the possible role and origin of retrotransposon-associated minisatellites, a computational project to map and physically characterize all members of these families in the G. max genome, irrespective of their association with Gmr9, was undertaken.


A computational pipeline was developed to map and analyze the organization and distribution of five Gmr9-associated minisatellites throughout the soybean genome. Polymerase chain reaction amplifications were used to experimentally assess the computational outputs.


A total of 63,841 copies of Gmr9-associated minisatellites were recovered from the assembled G. max genome. Ninety percent were associated with Gmr9, an additional 9% with other annotated retrotransposons, and 1% with uncharacterized repetitive DNAs. Monomers were tandemly interleaved and repeated up to 149 times per locus.


The computational pipeline enabled a fast, accurate, and detailed characterization of known minisatellites in a large, downloaded DNA database, and PCR amplification supported the general organization of these arrays.


Author Posting. © Mugil et al., 2012. This article is posted here by permission of the authors for personal use, not for redistribution. The article was published in BMC Bioinformatics, Volume 13, March 2012.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

Included in

Biology Commons