Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Higher Education Administration

Second Advisor

Copyright © 2014 Corinne Maekawa Kodama

Third Advisor

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


This study investigated the relationship between racial identity, using the constructs of collective racial esteem (CRE), and resilience on LSE for a diverse sample of 2,223 Asian American college students, using data from the Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership, a national survey of college outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the relationship between CRE and Resilience, as well as Non-Discriminatory Climate and Identity-based Experiences, on LSE. The model was tested for invariance for gender as well as for five Asian American ethnic groups (Chinese, Indian/Pakistani, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese).

Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the 4-item CRE subscales were not a good fit for the sample, and thus were modified for use in the structural model. Results of the structural model showed the positive influence of Private CRE and Public CRE on Resilience, the negative influence of Identity Salience and Nondiscriminatory Climate on Resilience, and the strong positive influence of Resilience on LSE. No exogenous variables had a significant, direct effect on the outcome of LSE, though it was demonstrated that Resilience served as a mediator.

The structural model was a good fit for both men and women, as well as the five ethnic groups tested. The model was invariant by gender. However, the five separate ethnic group models looked different from each other in the strength and significance of model paths, suggesting different influences on the development of Resilience and LSE by ethnic group.

Implications for research include: (a) the need to use CFA to thoroughly test the psychometrics of scales when used with Asian American populations; (b) the importance of disaggregating Asian American data by ethnic group to more appropriately understand college experiences and outcomes. Implications for practice include the importance of: (a) fostering Resilience to help develop LSE; (b) attending to the development of racial (and possibly ethnic) identity in leadership development; and (c) understanding differences among Asian American ethnic groups.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.