Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




This study explored how complex factors related to student characteristics (e.g., demographics, levels of racism) and instructor characteristics (e.g., demographics, level of multicultural competence, teaching strategies) are related to student outcomes in multicultural counseling courses (e.g., levels of racism and levels of multicultural competence at the end of the semester). Data collection yielded a sample of 21 students and six instructors. Findings suggest that instructors are a significant factor in how much students develop with regards to gaining multicultural knowledge, but not in how much students develop with regards to gaining multicultural awareness. Multivariate analysis of student responses suggest that the student factors that shape development of multicultural competence are complex. For example, the number of diversity courses students had previously taken and their levels of colorblind racism and multicultural competence at the beginning of the semester accounted for 69% of the variance in student outcomes. Implications of the study, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.