Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




The development of an effective blood substitute is urgent due to increasingly common blood shortages, the need to type-match donated blood, and communicable diseases (e.g. HIV) posing risks for blood transfusions around the world. There have been many attempts at creating hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC) using a variety of techniques centered around the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated to hemoglobin (Hb) tetramers. A novel method, “Inside-Out” PEGylation, has been developed by our lab to produce a polyethylene glycol crosslinked hemoglobin (PEG XL-Hb) polymer. This method utilizes a single PEG backbone that is surrounded by multiple proteins, instead of covering a protein with multiple PEG chains. Hemoglobin is extracted from bovine red blood cells, followed by a crosslinking modification to prevent the protein dissociation. The newly stabilized product is then further modified to produce a reactive site that is able to react with the eight arm PEG reagent. Post production, characterization of the polymer was preformed to determine the polymer’s size, ability to release oxygen, and stability of the polymer compared to un-reacted Hb.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

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