Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


School of Education


The disproportionality in school staff's discipline practices toward racial minority students (Skiba et al., 2011) are linked to higher levels of suspension and expulsion rates. These practices are also connected to various negative outcomes relative to student achievement and even students completing secondary education (Raffaele-Mendez & Knoff, 2003). the public school population has increasingly become more racially and ethnically diverse; however school personnel, both administrators and teaching staff have largely remained homogenous and predominantly White. as a result, some research has indicated that school personnel's level of cultural responsivity (CR) may impact their discipline practices. Examples of this have included staff being more prone to writing office disciplinary referrals (ODRs) for minority students and especially Black male students in comparison to White students (Anyon et al., 2014; Skiba et al., 2011). Research has also documented a correlation between staff's level of cultural responsiveness and the use of exclusionary disciplinary practices (e.g., suspension and expulsion) with racial minority students according to Isaacs and Benjamin (1991), and Okonofua, Paunesku and Walton (2016). However, little research specifically has focused on staff discipline practices and the potential relationship with staff CR levels from the teacher's perspective. Using a descriptive, non-experimental design, this study examines teachers' self-reported CR levels and discipline practices specifically through their issuance of ODRs to students and the relationship to discipline patterns as it intersects with student and staff race, student gender, referral type and student grade level.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.