Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


School of Education


This mixed methods study investigated whether caregivers' ratings of wraparound fidelity and satisfaction with the wraparound process differed based upon their facilitators' self-assessed cultural competence and caregivers' reported stress. An explanatory sequential design was used. The quantitative phase was completed first. Survey methodology was used to measure reported cultural competence, wraparound fidelity, satisfaction with the wraparound process, and parental stress. Facilitators (n=58) completed a self-assessment instrument, the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS; Ponterotto, 1997). The MCKAS survey yielded a 43% response rate. The MCKAS descriptive data found levels of reported cultural competence comparable to previously published studies. Telephone interviews were conducted with caregivers using two instruments: The Wraparound Fidelity Index, Version 4.0 (WFI-4; Wraparound Evaluation and Research Team, Bruns, & University of Washington, 2006) Caregiver Satisfaction Questionnaire (Rose, 2010) and The Caregiver Strain Questionnaire (CGSQ; Brannan, Heflinger, & Bickman, 1994). Relative to previously published studies, the caregivers (n=6) reported low levels of fidelity slightly higher levels of Objective Strain, comparable levels of Subjective Internalizing strain and lower levels of Subjective Externalizing Strain. However, they also reported being satisfied with the wraparound process. It was not possible to determine whether caregiver ratings of fidelity and satisfaction differed based upon their facilitator's self-assessed cultural competence due to the limited number of caregivers who participated in this study.

The goal of the second phase of the study was to explore the views of caregivers regarding culture and parental stress as factors during the wraparound process. The researcher employed a maximal variation sampling technique to compensate for the small number of caregivers in this study. The key findings are that caregiver stress may be reduced when parents feel supported by school personnel and they acquire strategies for managing their child's challenging behavior. The experiences of the caregivers in this study indicate that class and race were factors in developing home-school partnerships and implementation of interventions at schools. While the results of this study are not generalizable, the findings provide some evidence for the possible influence of class, race and culture in the wraparound process.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.