Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Resilience is defined as the ability to overcome unfavorable circumstances to achieve positive developmental outcomes. Studies of resilience and vulnerability generally reflect individuals' susceptibility to either positive or adverse outcomes when subjected to high-risk circumstances and environments. The current study examines the protective function of religiosity and structured after-school activities against the development of depression for young adolescents exposed to high incidence of community violence and deviant peer affiliation. The results suggest that religious beliefs and practices protects against depression for adolescents exposed to community violence. The implications of this finding as well as the study limitations and future research directions are discussed.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.