Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




Approaches such as universal education, state and national standards, and reform acts have sought to ensure that all students in America receive the same level of education. However, education systems are limited by institutionalized racism. An analysis of the education system through the lens of Critical Race Theory highlights the need to look outside of the traditional school setting, while Culturally Relevant Pedagogy gives insights for understanding the best practices in meeting the needs of minority students. This research considers how mentoring provides support and success for minority students by working with students outside of the school structure. Using the philosophies of friendship and caring, combined with the noted success of informal mentoring, formal mentoring relationships can support minority students through natural caring friendships. Future implementations for formalized mentoring programs are offered that might replicate the successful aspects of natural mentoring and increase the effectiveness of the programs.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.