Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)




Repeat mild traumatic brain injury (rmTBI) is a major public health concern leading to both chronic hypogonadism and vestibular impairment. Following rmTBI, vestibular symptoms are one of the most common complaints and hypogonadism occurs in a majority of patients. Gonadal hormones have a well-established role in neuroplasticity and axonal regeneration. The loss of gonadal hormones due to rmTBI may delay recovery. A clinically relevant closed-headed rmTBI male rodent model was utilized to examine the role of testosterone replacement therapy on chronic vestibular dysfunction. This is the first study to demonstrate both hypogonadism and vestibular dysfunction in the acute and chronic phases of a closed-headed rmTBI model. Vestibular function was improved 28-days after testosterone treatment and was sustained up to 175-days. These data strongly support a link between hypogonadism and vestibular impairment. Testosterone is a viable treatment following chronic vestibular dysfunction after rmTBIs. The lack of testosterone after injury can exacerbate impairment by delaying attenuation of brain injury processes.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

Available for download on Tuesday, August 13, 2024