Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)




Anti-Black racism continues to harm Black individuals in the United States and throughout the world (e.g., police brutality, medical racism: Hoffman, Trawalter, Axt, & Oliver, 2016; Smiley & Fakunle, 2016; Stuber, Meyer, & Link, 2008). Psychological research has investigated the roots of prejudice and strategies to mitigate its negative consequences, including confrontation and collective action. However, research in this area has largely focused on ways that these strategies pose additional risk for targets of prejudice. This research determined if Black people who endorse individual-benefiting or group-benefiting goals following an instance of anti-Black racism use confrontation and collective action, respectively, to cope with racism. It also tested whether racial identification strengthens the influence of both individual-benefiting and group-benefiting goals on intentions to use confrontation and collective action. Participants (n = 131) completed an identity measure, read a scenario that asked them to imagine an experience with anti-Black racism in a workplace, reported their individual-benefitting and group-benefitting confrontation goals, and finally reported their confrontation likelihood and their collective action intentions. As predicted, individual-benefitting goals were associated with confrontation and group-benefitting goals were associated with collective action. While racial identification affected both scores on confrontation likelihood and collective action intention directly, there was only a marginally significant interaction between identification and individual-benefitting goals for confrontation. Implications of this research are discussed.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

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