Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)




This study investigates the factors that may contribute to endocranial bone changes in human sub-adult skeletal remains in an effort to differentiate bone changes, or lesions, caused by pathological processes and those caused by growth and development. The contributory factors investigated included the presence of endocranial bone lesions, the age-at-death of the individual, the precise location of the bone change, the dynamic nature of the locations, and the presence (or absence) of postcranial and/or ectocranial indicators of pathology within the individual. The sample population used for this research was comprised of 129 individuals from 15 different Native American groups over five states and two cultural regions, ranging in age from birth to 15 years. Age-at-death was determined and macroscopic examinations of all bone surfaces were completed for all individuals. Results of chi-square tests performed on the data show that endocranial changes have a statistical association with lesion location, the dynamism of the location, and postcranial and/or ectocranial indicators of pathology. It can be stated that there is a correlation that can be established between certain specific factors and lesions caused by pathological processes whereas other factors showed a correlation to growth and developmental processes, or were found not to be contributory to either process.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.