Gene X Environment Effects of Serotonin Transporter, Dopamine Receptor D4, and Monoamine Oxidase A Genes with Contextual and Parenting risk factors on symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Anxiety, and Depression in a Community Sample of 4-Year-Old Children
Development and Psychopathology
Genetic factors can play a role in the multiple level of analyses approach to understanding the development of child psychology. The present study examined gene-environment correlations and Gene x Environment interactions for polymorphisms of three target genes, the serotonin transporter gene, the D4 dopamine reactor gene, and the monoamine oxidase A gene in relation to symptoms of anxiety, depression, and oppositional behavior. Saliva samples were collected from 175 non-Hispanic White, 4-year-old children. Psychosocial risk factors included socioeconomic status, life stress, caretaker depression, parental support, hostility, and scaffolding skills. In comparison with the short forms (s/s, s/l) of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic repeat, the long form (l/l) was associated with greater increases in symptoms of child depression and anxiety in interactions with caretaker depression, family conflict, and socioeconomic status. In boys, low-activity monoamine oxidase A gene was associated with increases in child anxiety and depression in interaction with caretaker depression, hostility, family conflict, and family stress. The results highlight the important of gene-environment interplay in the development of symptoms of child psychopathology in young children.
Lavigne, J.V., Herzing, L.B.K., Cook, E.H., LeBailly, S.A., Gouze, K.R., Hopkins, J., and Bryant, F.B. (2013). Gene x environment effects of serotonin transporter, dopamine receptor D4, and monoamine oxidase A genes with contextual and parenting risk factors on symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, anxiety, and depression in a community sample of 4-year-old children. Development and Psychopathology 25, 555-575.
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