Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Substance Use: Research and Treatment





Publisher Name

SAGE Publications


Introduction: This study examines factors associated with psychostimulant misuse, including polysubstance use and social factors, among the understudied American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian (AI/AN/NH) college student population.

Methods: Data were from the 2015 to 2019 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment IIc (ACHA-NCHA IIc) survey. Multivariable logistic regression models and odds ratios were used to estimate associations between psychostimulant misuse and potential risk and protective factors among AI/AN/NH college students, including licit and illicit substance use, social support, relationship factors, exposure to violence or abuse, mental health symptoms, drug and alcohol education, and sample demographics.

Results: Opioid misuse among AI/AN/NH college students significantly increased the odds of using psychostimulants. Specifically, for cocaine use, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 3.17 with a 95% confidence interval (C.I.) of 2.17 to 4.63; for methamphetamine use, the aOR was 38.87 (95% C.I. 19.24-78.52). For amphetamine misuse among non-Tobacco users, the aOR was 5.47 (95% C.I. 3.49-8.55), while among Tobacco users, the aOR was 2.65 (95% C.I. 2.07-3.41). For cocaine and other stimulant misuse, the aOR was 3.64 (95% C.I. 2.30-5.67). Additionally, the use of other types of licit and illicit substances was associated with greater odds of psychostimulant use and misuse. Conversely, factors such as age, living on campus, and residing in parental/guardian housing were linked with lower odds of psychostimulant use and misuse.

Conclusion: Substance use prevention and treatment interventions targeting AI/AN/NH college students should address polysubstance use, including the combined use of opioids and psychostimulants. Substance use interventions should not be siloed to focus narrowly on single substances but rather should leverage potential protective factors against substance use, such as promoting supportive campus and family living conditions and other social support networks, in broad efforts to reduce multiple forms of substance use among AI/AN/NH students.


Author Posting © The Author(s), 2023. This article is posted here by permission of SAGE Publications for personal use and redistribution. This article was published open access in Substance Use: Research and Treatment, VOL.17, (November 15, 2023),

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.