Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research







Publisher Name

BioMed Central


The family of ten-eleven translocation dioxygenases (TETs) consists of TET1, TET2, and TET3. Although all TETs are expressed in hematopoietic tissues, only TET2 is commonly found to be mutated in age-related clonal hematopoiesis and hematopoietic malignancies. TET2 mutation causes abnormal epigenetic landscape changes and results in multiple stages of lineage commitment/differentiation defects as well as genetic instability in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). TET2 mutations are founder mutations (first hits) in approximately 40–50% of cases of TET2-mutant (TET2MT) hematopoietic malignancies and are later hits in the remaining cases. In both situations, TET2MT collaborates with co-occurring mutations to promote malignant transformation. In TET2MT tumor cells, TET1 and TET3 partially compensate for TET2 activity and contribute to the pathogenesis of TET2MT hematopoietic malignancies. Here we summarize the most recent research on TETs in regulating of both normal and pathogenic hematopoiesis. We review the concomitant mutations and aberrant signals in TET2MT malignancies. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which concomitant mutations and aberrant signals determine lineage commitment in HSPCs and the identity of hematopoietic malignancies. Finally, we discuss potential strategies to treat TET2MT hematopoietic malignancies, including reverting the methylation state of TET2 target genes and targeting the concomitant mutations and aberrant signals.


85139288419 (Scopus)

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.