Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Advances in X-Ray Analysis





Publisher Name

Argonne National Laboratory

Publisher Location

Lemont, IL


During the Genesis mission solar wind was implanted in collector materials for analysis by various instrumental methods. Unfortunately the space craft crash landed upon return to Earth shattering the collectors into small fragments and exposing them to desert soil and spacecraft debris. Thus only small fragments are available for analysis with each having different degrees of contamination present at and embedded within the surface. Cleaning procedures were developed and applied to remove the contamination. To aid in this process bench top total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) was used to characterize a sample surface before and after various cleaning steps. In contrast to TXRF, synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (GI-XRF) is capable of probing at the surface and below the surface thus providing information about surface deposits as well as implanted material. A number of samples were subjected to both, TXRF and GI-XRF analysis and it was observed that some elements detected by TXRF were present not on top of but below the surface of the collector fragment. This suggested the possibility of using laboratory TXRF to distinguish between surface deposits and ion-implanted subsurface material. The feasibility of this approach was tested with a surface deposited and an ion implanted control sample. In addition a careful TXRF angle scan was also executed with one Genesis flight sample and compared to GI-XRF measurements, confirming the ability of bench top TXRF to distinguish between surface and subsurface material.


Author Posting. © International Center for Diffraction Data, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of the ICDD for personal use, not for redistribution. The article was published in Advances in X-Ray Analysis, 2014.

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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.

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