Physical Review D
The cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamical parameter in the framework of two-dimensional dilaton gravity. We find that the cosmological constant behaves as a U(1) charge with a confining potential, and that such potentials require a novel Born-Infeld boundary term in the action. The free energy and other thermodynamical quantities of interest are derived, from first principles, in a way that is essentially model independent. We discover that there is always a Schottky anomaly in the specific heat and explain its physical origin. Finally, we apply these results to specific examples, like anti-de Sitter–Schwarzschild–Tangherlini black holes, Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and the Jackiw-Teitelboim model.
Grumiller, D., McNees, R.A., Salzer, J. (2014). Cosmological constant as confining U(1) charge in two-dimensional dilaton gravity. Physical Review D., Vol. 90.
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